Clivus pathologies from diagnosis to surgical multidisciplinary treatment. Review of the literature
The Clivus is a bone that lies in a central position of the skull base, and it is a crucial point that splits and connects different anatomical compartments at the same time. There is significant variability of diseases involving the clivus, from neoplasms to non-neoplastic, inflammatory or traumatic lesions. Each of these is rare in frequency, and this heterogeneity contributes to yield the management even more challenging. Clival pathologies can be asymptomatic or have manifestations ranging from aspecific headache to cranial nerves palsies, till life-threatening complications as cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea, meningitis or brain abscess. There isn’t an univocal endorsement among experts with regard to the best approaches to manage the clivus. The paths described are many, the main division is between the transclival and transcranial lateral approaches. We performed a review of the literature, thus highlighting how authors seem to suggest that the surgical approach shouldn’t be chosen aprioristically, but based on a patient centred analysis, considering the combination of multiple surgical corridors. From diagnosis to surgery and medical therapy, clival pathologies require a team of multidisciplinary experts to ensure the best standard of treatment and higher survival rate.