Abstract

Orbital invasion is frequently observed in tumors involving the maxillary, ethmoid and frontal sinuses given the proximity of the orbit to the sinonasal tract and ventral skull base. The main objective of the present review is to determine the existing evidences on the frequency, treatment, and outcomes of orbital invasion in benign and malignant sinonasal tumors. A systematic review of the literature published from 1995 to 2020 was performed and data sources included PubMed, Cochrane library, NCBI Bookshelf, National Guideline Clearinghouse. Orbital invasion was reported in 2-4% of inverted papillomas, 12-15% of fibro-osseous lesions, 27-32% of juvenile angiofibromas, 35-45% of low-grade malignancies, and 50-80% of high-grade cancers. Surgical resection with negative margins represents the cornerstone of management for benign and low-grade malignant tumors. Histology-specific induction chemotherapy can be used for high-grade sinonasal cancers in order to downstage the tumor and increase the possibility of orbital preservation. When a significant response to induction chemotherapy is observed, exclusive chemoradiation should be offered to improve overall survival rates. Appropriate reconstruction of any surgical defects is essential in order to minimize complications and optimize functional and aesthetic outcomes. Orbital apex invasion represents a negative prognostic factor. In conclusion, a multidisciplinary teamwork is mandatory to maximize local control, minimize morbidity and improve orbital preservation rates.