Calprotectin in nasal secretion: a new biomarker of non-type 2 inflammation in CRSwNP
Objective. We analysed calprotectin in sinonasal secretions of different chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) endotypes to assess its role as a biomarker of non-type 2 inflammation.
Methods. We included primary diffuse CRSwNP patients (n = 41) and three different control groups [non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) (n = 13), non-allergic eosinophilic syndrome (NARES) (n = 10) and healthy subjects (n = 12)]. Calprotectin levels were detected in nasal secretions using a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA).
Results. Calprotectin levels in nasal secretions were significantly higher in all non-type 2 endotypes of CRSwNP compared to healthy controls (p < 0.05). In contrast, in type-2 CRSwNP calprotectin was significantly lower compared to controls (p < 0.05). A significant correlation between calprotectin levels and neutrophilic count/HPF was found in CRSwNP (p < 0.01). Clinically, mean levels of calprotectin and neutrophilia were significantly higher in patients who previously underwent 3 or more endoscopic sinus surgeries (p < 0.05).
Conclusions. Calprotectin in nasal secretions may be a biomarker of non-type 2 inflammation. Low levels of calprotectin are indicative of a type-2 immune response in both CRSwNP and non-allergic rhinitis. We observed that calprotectin levels significantly increased based on the number of previous surgeries.
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© Società Italiana di Otorinolaringoiatria e chirurgia cervico facciale , 2022
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