Abstract

Obstructive sleep apnaea (OSA) syndrome is a condition characterised by the presence of complete or partial collapse of the upper airways during sleep, resulting in fragmentation of sleep associated with rapid episodes of intermittent hypoxia (IH), activation of the sympathetic nervous system and oxidative stress. OSA is associated with a broad spectrum of cardiovascular, metabolic and neurocognitive comorbidities that appear to be particularly evident in obese patients, while affecting both sexes in a different manner and varying in severity according to gender and age. In recent years, studies on OSA have increased considerably, but in clinical practice, it is still a highly underdiagnosed disease. To date, the gold standard for the diagnosis of OSA is nocturnal polysomnography (PSG). However, since it is not well suited for a large number of patients, the Home Sleep Test (HST) is also an accepted diagnostic method. Currently, the major aim of research is to identify non-invasive methods to achieve a highly predictive, non-invasive screening system for these subjects. The most recent reports indicate that research in this field has made significant progress in identifying possible biomarkers in OSA, using -OMIC approaches, particularly in the fields of proteomics and metabolomics. In this review, we analyse these OMIC biomarkers found in the literature.